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Today Class November 29, 2022

There are nine parts of speech – Noun, Article, Adjective, Pronoun, Verb, Adverb, Preposition, Interjection, and Conjunction.

What is Noun?

A Noun is the name of any person, place, or thing. It can be told that noun is a word that names any person, place or thing. For example, Jack, India, bag.

Nouns are varied, by Number, Gender, and Case.

Nouns (Number)

Nouns have two numbers: the Singular and the Plural. The singular means one, the plural more than one.

  1. The plural is generally formed by adding s to the singular as bag – bags.
  2. Nouns end with s, sh, ch, x or o, form the plural by adding es. Such as box-boxes, bus-buses, bush-bushes, patch-patches, hero-heroes.
  3. Noun ends with y, its plural replaces y by ies, as baby-babies. But when a noun ends with y and a vowel before it, its plural replaces y by s only. Like boy-boys.
  4. Noun that ends with f or fe, its plural replaces f or fe by ves. For example: life-lives, loaf-loaves. But words like dwarf, scarf, wharf, brief, chief, grief, kerchief, handkerchief, mischief, gulf, turf, surf, fife, strife, proof, hoof, roof, and reproof never change f or fe into ves, instead adds a s to it.
  5. Nouns ending in ch, sounding k, form the plural by adding s only. Like – stomach-stomachs.
  6. Nouns ending in ff, form the plural by adding s only. Like muff-muffs, except staff, which sometimes becomes staves.
  7. Nouns ending in io, form the plural by adding s only. Like folio-folios.

Nouns (Gender)

Living things are of either male or female sex. There are three genders: masculine, feminine and neuter.

The masculine denotes the male sex, as man, boy, tiger.

The feminine denotes the female sex, as woman, girl, tigress.

The neuter denotes whatever is without life: book, pen room, milk.

Other than these three kinds of gender we often have noun that denotes either a male or a female, which is known as Common Gender, as parent, child, friend, person, orphan, baby, etc.

There are three ways to differentiate the sex:

  1. By different words, as boy-girl, king-queen, sir-madam, cock-hen
  2. By a difference of termination, as tiger-tigress, lion-lioness, widower-widow
  3. By prefixing another word, as he-goat – she-goat, man-servant – maid-servant

Noun (Case)

Case is the relation one noun bears to another, or to a verb, or preposition.

There are three kinds of cases of nouns: nominative, possessive and objective.

  1. Nominative case denotes the name of a thing.
  2. Possessive case denotes possession as John’s book, legs of the chair – possession is often expressed by of as well as by ‘s. When the plural of a noun ends in s, the possessive is formed by adding only an apostrophe, as cats‘ (plural of cat is cats).
  3. Objective denotes the object upon which an active verb or a preposition ends. Like for example: Jack threw a stone. In this example the noun stone is called the objective case.

Kinds of Nouns

There are two kinds of nouns: Common noun and Proper noun.

Common Noun – a name given in common to every person or thing of the same class or kind. As bird, king, teacher, etc.

Proper Noun – a name given to some particular person or place. As Mahatma Gandhi, Ashoka, Kolkata. Proper nouns always begin with a capital letter, but common noun does not begin with capital letter except it starts the sentence.

Common nouns include Collective noun and Abstract noun

Collective Nouns – is the name of a number of persons or things taken together and spoken of as one whole. Such as crowd, mob, team, family, nation, parliament.

Abstract Noun – is the name of a quality, action, or state considered apart from the object to which it belongs. Such as kindness, darkness, brightness, honesty [quality]

Laughter, theft, movement, judgment [action]

Childhood, youth, slavery, sleep, death, poverty [state].